The main event in his story is the capture of Valencia from the Muslims. The eastern Mediterranean coast, occupied so rapidly by the Arabs in the 7th century, has been part of the Greek world since the time of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC.
The golden age of Latin literature coincides with the peace and prosperity of Italy in the early decades of the empire. The link is more than coincidence. In the intimate circle of the emperor Augustus is the immensely rich Maecenas, whose name has become synonymous with patronage of the arts; and the writers encouraged by Maecenas share the widespread enthusiasm for the peace brought to Rome by Augustus. So the Augustan Agein literary terms, is a circle of mutual benefit and esteem.
Born in 70 BC in a farming community near Mantua, Rome's greatest poet finds his inspiration in the traditions and history of the Italian countryside. As a young adult Virgil lives under the shadow of the civil wars which convulse Italy during the 40s one of his earliest poems, the first Eclogue, concerns the confiscation of Virgil's family farm to settle veteran soldiers after the battle of Philippi.
In his work he celebrates the subsequent peace. Virgil's reputation is established with the publication of the ten short Eclogues, written between 42 and 37 BC see Publishing in Rome. Their success brings him to the notice of his future patron, Maecenas. Between them, in an ever-shifting balance, the works of Plato and Aristotle remain the dominant influence on western thought for years, until the time of Descartes.
In 3rd-century Rome Plotinus merges them in Neo-Platonism. During the dark ages of western Europe their works are preserved and commented on by Greek scholars in Constantinople, by Persians such as Avicenna and by Arabs and Jews in Spain AverröesMaimonides.
Such men hand on the tradition until Aristotle is adopted as the patron saint of scholasticism and Plato, in his turn, of the Renaissance. This is a remarkable result from some sixty years of hard thinking in ancient Athens. Virgil's greatest work, on which he spends the rest of his life, is written when Octavian has been named Augustus Caesar and is in fact though not in theory a Roman emperor.
Where the Georgics gently celebrate Italy and its countryside, the Aeneid is an epic in praise of Rome - the power which will liberate the genius of the Italian people. The reign of Augustus, and the recently achieved Pax Romanais implicit as the natural finale of the story. By a quirk of fate En que consiste el speed dating himself, praised for saving Rome, also saves the poem. It is in his interest to do so.
The Aeneid traces his own descent back to Aeneas himself, the founder of Rome. Horace represents a new idea of the poet, similar to one later developed in another culture - China in the T'ang dynasty. In this tradition the poet is someone distanced from the immediate business of public life, free to concentrate on capturing, in the difficult craft of poetry, more lasting perceptions of the human condition.
The subjects of Horace's short but tightly packed Odes called Carmina or 'songs' in their Latin title are friendship, love, wry amusement at the passing scene - anything which might occur to a man living a quiet country existence but in touch with en que consiste el speed dating wide circle of sophisticated acquaintances.
The setting for this existence is his famous Sabine farm. The fourth great author writing in Latin during the Augustan Age is not so much a celebrant of the emperor's achievements as a victim of his autocracy. Ovid is a generation younger than Virgil, Horace and Livy.
HISTORY OF LITERATURE
By the time he is an adult, from about 23 BC, the civil wars are over; the stability and prosperity of the new Roman empire are established facts. High life, rather than a quiet life, is what appeals to Ovid and his contemporaries. And his poetic talents are well suited to amuse a society devoted to pleasure. Chinese poetry achieves its golden age during the T'ang dynasty. The ability to turn an elegant verse is so much part of civilized life that almost 50, poems by some poets survive from the period.
Poetry is a social activity. Friends write stanzas for each other to commemorate an manager datând legea angajaților, and competitive improvization is a favourite game at a party or on a picnic. Early in the dynasty news of a child prodigy, a girl of seven, reaches the court. She is brought before the empress and is asked to improvize on the theme of bidding farewell to her brothers.
The Resulting poemdelivered in this alarming context, is brilliant - though no doubt polished in the telling. The three greatest T'ang poets are exact contemporaries in the early 8th century. One of them, Wang Wei, begins his career with a brilliant success in the official examinations but he rarely holds the high positions which this would normally imply ssee Chinese examinations.
More important to him is his villa in the mountains south of the capital city, at Wang-ch'uan. The beauty of the landscape inspires Wang Wei both as painter and poet. None of his paintings survive, but later Chinese landscapes reveal the closely related influence of the countryside in both art forms. A poet of the next dynasty writes of Wang Wei that there are pictures in his poems and poems in his pictures. The first Christian writer since St Paul to reach a wide readership is also the en que consiste el speed dating great figure in the story of Latin literature.
Confessions, his account of his early life and conversion to Christianity, is the world's first autobiography, introducing the genre with a masterpiece. And the massive City of God is one of the most influential works of Christian philosophy.
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The author of these very different but seminal works is the bishop of Hippo in north Africa, St Augustine. Augustine's famous Confessions is essentially a spiritual autobiography, written from the viewpoint of a Christian bishop describing how he came to the truth.
It provides a rare and fascinating glimpse of the prevailing influences on an intelligent young man in the declining years of the Roman empire and the early centuries of established Christianity. Augustine's mother, Monica, is a Christian; his father is a pagan; but their main concern is that their brilliant son shall thrive in the world, probably as a civil servant. Instead, as a student at Carthage, he becomes interested in philosophy and launches into a precarious existence as a en que consiste el speed dating teacher.
A powerful influence reaching Japan from China along with Buddhismthe bureaucracy of Confucianism and even the game of go is Chinese literature and the Chinese script. When the first texts reach Japan, perhaps in the 4th century AD, the Japanese language has not yet been written down. The first Japanese scribes adapt the Chinese characters to the needs of a very different language, in an unnatural alliance which has remained awkward ever since.
The earliest surviving works in Japanese date from the flowering of court life at Nara in the 8th century. There are compilations of legend and history, and a magnificent anthology of early Japanese poems.
The Heian periodwith the Japanese capital at Kyoto, is distinguished by literature as elegant and subtle as the style of the court itself. As in China, poetry is here considered an essential element of civilized life. The competitive writing of verses is a social pastime. A good poet can expect preferment at court. Messages from a lover to his mistress are welcome in poetic form, preferably attached to an arrangement of flowers.
In the emperor commissions an anthology of poems, in the tradition of the Manyoshu of earlier times. The new collection, the Kokinshu, consists almost entirely of short tanka.
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It is more artificial than its predecessor - and more restricting in its subsequent influence. In the heyday of classical Chinese culture, a civilized gentleman - meaning a Confucian official - should be adept in three different artistic fields. When he settles down before a fresh sheet of paper and dips his brush in the ink ground from a block of pigment by a servantno one can be certain whether he is about to pen an impromptu poem, paint a quick impression of a romantic landscape or fashion some traditional phrase in exquisite Chinese characters.
The three skills, all expressed in the beauty of brush strokes, are closely linked. A 'soundless poem' is a conventional Chinese term for a picture.
And a typical poem by the Song master Ou-yang Hsiu Sounds like a painting. The poems of the Arab nomads are invented, embroidered, recited by specialists known as sha'ir meaning approximately 'one who knows', and therefore close to the English word 'seer'.
Enjoy the Famous Daily Mesopotamia: 3rd millennium BC The earliest uses of writing are strictly practical - lists of commodities, temple accounts, details of a contract. Such documents are short and not too daunting to a Mesopotamian scribe, writing with a reed stylus on a tablet of damp clay. For centuries it seems unthinkable to write down an entire epic poem, familiar to these societies only in the form of recitation. When writing is first developed, an oral poetic tradition is already a feature of civilized life. Eventually the scribes get round to the task of recording some of this material.
Recorded in anthologies of the 8th century and 9th century, and dating from perhaps two centuries earlier, the surviving examples provide a rare glimpse of poems from a pre-literate era. They fall into two categories.
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The earlier tradition consists of short poems of a passionately partisan kind. With few exceptions, the theme is praise of one's own tribe or abuse of the enemy. The other kind of poem, known as qasidah, is longer up to lines and more elaborate in form. The eastern Mediterranean coast, occupied so rapidly by the Arabs in the 7th century, has been part of the Greek world since the time of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. Conquest by the Romans does not displace Greek civilization in this region, nor at first do the Arab caliphs.
They rule over communities which understand Greek and which possess manuscripts of the classic works of Greek literature.
Many have already been translated in Antioch into Syriac - a local version of Aramaic. Of the medical works of Galenfor example, as many as exist in Syriac.
In the 8th century, when the caliphate has moved to Baghdadscholars begin translating these available Greek and Syriac texts into Arabic.
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Although Greece is geographically close to Italy, and Greek literature is highly prized in ancient Rome, western Europe loses touch with its Greek intellectual roots during the centuries after the collapse of the Roman empire. And Byzantine Constantinople has no incentive to enlighten them.
It is the Arab interest in Greek philosophy and science that eventually transmits the tradition to western Europe, along the unbroken belt of Muslim civilization stretching from Greek Antioch in the northeast Mediterranean to Latin Toledo in the west. The Thousand and One Nights, better known in the west as the Arabian Nights, is a collection in Arabic of popular tales handed down in an oral tradition. The earliest historically identifiable details in the stories suggest that they are first gathered together in the late 8th century, in the Baghdad of Harun al-Rashid.
They continue to be added to, with the collection probably reaching its present form in Cairo in the 15th century. The tales are held together within the framework of another story, taking place in the harem of a fierce and bitter sultan.
The Germanic peoples of northern Europe are rivalled only by the ancient Greeks in their genius at transforming the shared myths and memories of the tribe into epic literature. Unlike Homer 's Greek epic, no name is attached to the great Germanic poems. But the circumstances in each case are similar.
In Mycenaean Greece and in the Europe of the Dark Ages great events take place under the leadership of a warrior caste which is largely illiterate. The stories of the battlefield deserve constant retelling. The lord's followers need to be entertained after supper in the dark nights of winter. The stage is set for the bard. The poem of Beowulf, amounting to lines, is the first and the greatest surviving work of early Germanic literature.
The story tells of fantastic fights against fierce dragons, but it is set in an authentic historical context of Scandinavia in the 6th century see Beowulf - the story.
Mingled with the original pagan material of the epic is a thread of Christian commentary and imagery. This blend, matching the experience of the Anglo-Saxons in England, gives likely clues to the poem's date. Iceland provides the fullest surviving record of Germanic mythology, legend and history.
The earliest examples are found in a manuscript written in the 13th century, known as the Elder Edda or sometimes Poetic Eddawhich is preserved in the Royal Library in Copenhagen. The opening poem in the Elder Edda entitled Völuspá recounts Norse mythology, from the creation story onwards.
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Though composed in Iceland, probably in the 10th century, the material is based on earlier sources deriving from Norway and possibly from Norse settlements in Britain. The western half of Charlemagne's Frankish empireapproximating to modern France, introduces in the 12th century a new and influential strand in European literature. The Franks, as a Germanic tribe, enjoy a powerful epic tradition from Beowulf to the Nibelungenlied in which heroism is the stock-in-trade of fierce warriors beset by often monstrous dangers.
But in this western part of the Frankish empire - profoundly influenced by Rome, and speaking a Romance language rather than a Germanic one - there now emerges an element which borrows its name from these qualities. The arrival of romance transforms the warrior into a gentleman. The love poetry of the troubadours is linked with a very specific region - southern France and the adjacent regions of Spain and En que consiste el speed dating. Unlike the earlier tradition of minstrels or jongleurs a French word related to 'juggling', which suggests the level of entertainment involvedthe troubadours tend to be aristocrats.
Indeed the earliest troubadour whose poems survive is William IX, duke of Aquitaine in the early 12th century. The central region of the troubadours is Provence and the language of their poetry Provençal - the southern version of French. The shared memories of the Nordic people, first written down in Iceland literature, have been recited and sung wherever Germanic tribes have settled - including the central lands of Germany itself.
In the southeast of this en que consiste el speed dating, in modern Austria, the legends about the fall of Burgundy to the Huns achieve their fullest and most influential expression in a version of the late 12th century.
This is the great German epic poem known as the Nibelungenlied 'Song of the Nibelungs'. A very early manuscript of the Chanson de Roland dating from aboutin Oxford's Bodleian Library reveals that the author of France's first great epic poem is probably called Turold.
The setting for his story is Charlemagne's expedition of against the Muslims in Spain. The entire campaign was in reality disastrous, but Turold's choice of incident declares uncompromisingly that this is to be a new kind of heroic poetry. The poet concentrates on a small but undignified event the successful attack by hill people on the rear of Charlemagne's army in the pass of Roncesvalles and transforms it into a glorious occasion. He does so by concentrating on the obstinate courage of two of Charlemagne's followers.
The theme of Arthur, a legendary Celtic king of Britain, proves well suited to the demands of medieval romantic literature.
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